Discrete time wavelet transforms (DWT), which produces
multiscale image decomposition. By employing filtering and subsampling, a
result in the form of the decomposition image (for classical dyadic approach)
is produced, very effectively revealing data redundancy in several scales. A
coding principle is then applied in order to compress the data. It superior to
Fourier and DCT. It has Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) provides a multi
resolution image representation and has become one of the most important tools
in image analysis and coding over the last two decades.
Wednesday, 18 December 2013
Monday, 16 December 2013
MATLAB Implementation of Steganography (Simple Data Hiding Method).
AIM: Study & Implementation of Steganography (Simple Data Hiding Method).
THEORY:
Modern information hiding technology is
an important branch of information security. The redundancy of digital media,
as well as the characteristic of human visual system, makes it possible to hide
messages. Information hiding technology used in covert communication is named
as steganography. Steganography is the art
and science of invisible communication. Three competing aspects,
including capacity, security, and robustness, are usually considered in the
designing of information hiding schemes.
How to write own function in Simulink?
Simulink is an environment for simulation and
modelbased design for dynamic and embedded systems. It provides an interactive
graphical environment and a customizable set of block libraries that let you
design, simulate, implement, and test a variety of timevarying systems,
including communications, controls, signal processing, video processing, and
image processing.
Simulink offers:
Friday, 13 December 2013
MATLAB Implementation of Face recognition with Principal Components Analysis (PCA).
Face recognition has been very
important issue in computer vision and pattern recognition over the last several decades.
One difficulty in face recognition is how to handle the variations in the expression, pose and illumination when only a limited number of training
samples are available. In this assignment Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is
proposed for facial expression detection.
Friday, 6 December 2013
How to convert .m file to .p file?
.p file stands for protected file. Matlab provides us one
facility i.e. conversion from .m to .p file. We can convert important functions
from .m to protected files. Matlab has a standard encryption key using that key
Matlab will convert .m to .p file. If we open that file with the help of
notepad or WordPad then we can’t get anything from that file.
Thursday, 5 December 2013
How to convert .m file to .exe?
1. First write your own program. For example write any application using Graphical user Interface (GUI).
2. Now go to command prompt window and write this command mbuild
setup. After writing press enter. Then you will see the figure given
below.
Tuesday, 3 December 2013
How to handle variable from one function to other function in MATLAB GUI?
Handling variable
from one function to other function is also an important job. Instead of taking
variables once again from user, anyone can use saved variables by handling them
properly in function to function. This process will reduce code length in
MATLAB.
How to use List box in MATLAB GUI?
AIM: Study and Implementation of Toggle button, Radio button and
Checkbox in MATLAB GUI.
PROCEDURE:
1. For
opening GUI tool simply type following command in command window.
>> guide

This
command will open GUI toolbox.
Monday, 2 December 2013
How to use Toggle button, Radio button and Checkbox in MATLAB GUI?
AIM: Study and Implementation of Toggle button, Radio button and
Checkbox in MATLAB GUI.
PROCEDURE:
1. For
opening GUI tool simply type following command in command window.
>> guide

This
command will open GUI toolbox.
How to apply DCT to Color Image & Grayscale Image in MATLAB?
AIM: Study and Implementation of Discrete Cosine Transform of
given image.
THEORY:
Discrete
Cosine Transform (DCT) has been an important achievement in the field of image
compression. The DCT can be considered as a discrete time version of the
Fourier Cosine series. The discrete cosine transforms (DCT) is a technique for
converting a signal into elementary frequency components. The transformed array
obtained through DCT is also of the size N x N, same as that of the original
image block.
Friday, 29 November 2013
How to use Popup menu & Axes in MATLAB GUI?
AIM: Study and Implementation of Popup menu and Axes in MATLAB
GUI.
PROCEDURE:
1. For
opening GUI tool simply type following command in command window.
>> guide

This
command will open GUI toolbox.
How to use Slider in MATLAB GUI?
AIM: Study and Implementation of Slider in MATLAB GUI.
PROCEDURE:
1. For
opening GUI tool simply type following command in command window.
>> guide

This
command will open GUI toolbox.
Wednesday, 27 November 2013
How to Implement Bitplane slicing in MATLAB?
THEORY:
Separating a digital image into its bitplanes is useful for
analyzing the relative importance played by each bit of image, a process aids
in determining the adequacy of the no. of bits used to quantize each pixel. This
type of decomposition is useful for image compression. This term of bitplane extraction for an 8 bit image, it is
not difficult to show that the (binary) image for bitplane 7 can be obtained
by processing input image with a thresholding graylevel transformation
function.
How to use Edit box in MATLAB GUI?
AIM: 1) Study and Implementation of Edit box in MATLAB GUI.
2) Implementation of Addition of Two numbers using two
edit boxes.
PROCEDURE:
1. For
opening GUI tool simply type following command in command window.
>> guide

This
command will open GUI toolbox.
Monday, 25 November 2013
How to use Pushbutton in MATLAB GUI?
AIM: Study and Implementation of Pushbutton in MATLAB GUI.
PROCEDURE:
1. For
opening GUI tool simply type following command in command window.
>> guide

This
command will open GUI toolbox.
Thursday, 21 November 2013
Study of Read and write different types of images in MATLAB (Binary image, Grayscale image and Color image).
AIM: Read and write different types of images (Binary image,
Grayscale image and Color image)
THEORY:
Basically image having three types
1) Binary image: Binary image is the image which having 1
bit/pixel. It has 1 bitplane. Minimum pixel value of image is 0 and maximum is
1.
Wednesday, 20 November 2013
Basic Study of Graphical User Interface in MATLAB.
AIM: Study of Graphical User Interface in MATLAB.
THEORY:
Graphical
user interface plays important role in today’s computer era. For user friendly
operations we use graphical user interface. VB, .net these are some languages
that we used for creating GUI. MATLAB provides us simple and user friendly
graphical user interface tool named as ‘guide’.
How to handle Video in MATLAB?
AIM: 1. Study of Video file handling.
2.
Implementing Color to Black and white video conversion.
THEORY:
1.
Study of Video file handling:
Video file reading in Matlab is
interesting process. So aim of this experiments is
1. How to read video file in Matlab?
2. How to play video files in Matlab?
3. How to check size of the video file
in Matlab?
How to handles Text file, Excel file and Audio file in MATLAB?
AIM: Study and Implementation of file handling
1. Text
files handling
2. Excel
files handling
3. Audio file handling
THEORY:
1.
Text files Handling:
Generally
we use text files and for doing various documents. We can directly read text files
in Matlab.
Monday, 18 November 2013
Study and Implementation of Branching Statements (if – else and Switch). Implementation of Finding Quadratic equation, Finding Even odd, Finding Greatest Number....
AIM: Study and Implementation of
Branching Statements (if – else and Switch).
THEORY:
Decision
making structures require that the programmer specify one or more conditions to
be evaluated or tested by the program, along with a statement or statements to
be executed if the condition is determined to be true, and optionally, other
statements to be executed if the condition is determined to be false.
Saturday, 16 November 2013
Study and Implementation of Looping Statements (for loop and while loop), Implementation of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio and Factorial of Number.....
AIM: Study and Implementation of
Looping Statements (for loop and while loop).
THEORY:
Loops are MATLAB constructs
that permit us to execute a sequence of statements more than once. There are
two basic forms of loop constructs: while
loops and for loops. The major difference
between these two types of loops is in how the repetition is controlled. The code
in a while loop is repeated an indefinite number of times until some
userspecified condition is satisfied. By contrast, the code in a “for loop” is
repeated a specified number of times, and the number of repetitions is known
before the loops starts.
Study and Implementation of Discrete Time Signal and Continuous Time Signal using Stem and Plot Command Respectively.
AIM: Study and Implementation of Plot and Stem
Command.
THEORY:
1.
For ‘STEM’ Command:
A discrete time signal has a value defined
only at discrete points in time in these signals the independent variables
takes only a discrete set of integer values.
e.g. Attendance of students Vs date
(time)
Representation of DT sequence:
Study and Implementation of Matrix Manipulation and Array Handling.
AIM: Study and Implementation of
Matrix Manipulation and Array Handling.
THEORY:
The
fundamental unit of data in any MATLAB program is the array. An array is a collection of data values organized into rows
and columns and known by a single name. Individual data values within an array
are accessed by including the name of the array followed by subscripts in
parentheses that identify the row and column of the particular value. Even
scalars are treated as arrays by MATLAB—they are simply arrays with only one
row and one column. Arrays can be classified as either vectors or matrices.
Wednesday, 28 August 2013
Tone Generation using LPC2148....
AIM: Tone generation with Different delay.
THEORY:
Tone generation using
digital I/O is simply creating a square wave of appropriate frequency. For this
we can use the previous program of LED flashing as the base program. When we
flash an LED, we use large delay for LED flashing to be visible. However, the
tone frequencies are typically large. So the only modification required is to
create separate delay routines with various delay values, typically in the
range of 100uSec to 50mSec.
Thursday, 22 August 2013
Basic Image File Formats
Image
processing is a broad area. Image is nothing but a combination of pixels. It has
various file formats.
1) BMP (Bitmap
file format)
2) JPG (Joint
Photographic Expert Group)
3) TIF (Tagged
Image file format)
4) PNG (Portable
Network Graphics)
5) PPM, PGM,
PBM, PNM and PFM
6) RAW (Raw Image format)
7) GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)
Wednesday, 14 August 2013
Successively off LED and Using AND/OR operation flashing of LED in LPC2148
AIM: 1) Set LED P0.0 to P0.7 first and then
successively off it.
2) Flash LED at
P0.1, P0.2, P0.20 and P0.21 using AND/OR operation.
THEORY:
The LED flashing / chasing can be
implemented using software delay and port pin handling.
PINSEL, IODIR, IOSET and IOCLR these
four registers are very important registers when we consider port I/O
operation.
Thursday, 8 August 2013
Chasing LED i.e. (Flash one LED right to left and left to right at P0.0 to P0.7).
AIM: Chasing LED i.e. (Flash one LED right to left and left to right at P0.0 to
P0.7).
THEORY:
The LED flashing
/ chasing can be implemented using software delay and port pin handling.
PINSEL, IODIR,
IOSET and IOCLR these four registers are very important registers when we
consider port I/O operation.
Saturday, 20 July 2013
Basic Study of MATLAB
AIM: Basic Study of Matlab.
THEORY:
MATLAB
is software proposed for high performance numerical computation &
visualization. It provides an introductive environment with hundreds of built
in function for technical computation graphics & animation. It provided
extensibility with its own high level performance programming language. Here
MATLAB stands for ‘Matrix’ laboratory.
Thursday, 27 June 2013
Study of PLL (Phase Locked Loop) Generate square wave at P0.4 with PLL (Fosc=12 MHz and Cclk = 48 MHz) using ARM LPC2148....
AIM:
Generate
square wave at P0.4 with PLL (Fosc=12 MHz and Cclk = 48 MHz).
THEORY:
PLL
is a block that allows multiplying the input frequency. The multiplication
factor can be an integer or a rational number. There are two PLL modules in the
LPC2141/2/4/6/8 microcontroller. The PLL0 is used to generate the CCLK clock
(system clock) while the PLL1 has to supply the clock for the USB at the fixed
rate of 48 MHz Structurally these two PLLs are identical with exception of the
PLL interrupt capabilities reserved only for the PLL0. The PLL0 and PLL1 accept
an input clock frequency in the range of 10 MHz to 25 MHz only.
Saturday, 22 June 2013
Key sensing and activating LED, Relay and Buzzer in ARM LPC2148
AIM: Sense
key and activate following devices.
Sense key from P0.0

Activate LED and
Relay connected at P0.3 and P0.6 resp.

Sense key from P0.1

Activate LED and
Relay connected at P0.4 and P0.7 resp.

Sense key from P0.2

Activate Buzzer
connected at P0.5.

Tuesday, 18 June 2013
Copy the content of memory location from one place to other (Block copy) in ARM LPC2148
AIM:
Copy
the content of memory location from one place to other.
THEORY:
This operation is
carried out by copying content of 5 memory location. Source memory address is
0x01 and destination memory address is 0x21 by using LDR and STR instructions.
Tuesday, 11 June 2013
Implementing flashing of LED at port 0 using ARM LPC2148.
AIM: Flashing LED at P0.0, P0.1, P0.2 and P0.3 with 1 sec delay.
THEORY:
The
LED flashing can be implemented using software delay and port pin
handling.
PINSEL,
IODIR, IOSET and IOCLR these four registers are very important registers when
we consider port I/O operation.
Addition of two 32 bit numbers with subroutine & function in assembly and embedded c language respectively (LPC2148).
AIM:
Addition
of two 32 bit numbers, with subroutine in assembly language and with function in embedded c language.
THEORY:
Basically Arithmetic logical unit (ALU) is main
important part of the processor. ALU used for performing various arithmetic as
well as logical operations. If result of ALU is zero then Z flag of CPSR
register will set. If carry is generated from 31th bit of the result then carry
flag will set. If 31th bit of the result is 1 then negative flag will set.The
arithmetic instructions implement addition and subtraction of 32bit signed
andunsigned values.
Monday, 3 June 2013
MATLAB code of RGB color Extraction from Color Image
RGB (Red, Green, Blue) Color model:
Basically image
divided into three types. Binary image require 1 bit/pixel and it has 1 plane.
Gray scale image require 8 bit/pixel and it has 8 bitplanes. Color image having
3 planes, red green and blue, each plane require 8 bits/pixel, it has 24 bitplanes.
The RGB color model is based on a
Cartesian coordinate system whose axes represent the three primary colors of
light (R, G, and B), usually normalized to the range [0,
1]. The eight vertices of the resulting cube correspond to the three primary colors
of light, the three secondary colors, pure white and pure black.
Monday, 27 May 2013
Matlab code for JPEG2000 Image Compression Standard.
As digital imagery becomes more commonplace and of higher
quality, there is a need to manipulate more and more data. Thus, image
compression must not only reduce the necessary storage and bandwidth
requirements, but also allow extraction for editing, processing, and targeting
particular devices and applications. The JPEG2000 image compression system has
a ratedistortion advantage over the original JPEG. More importantly, it also
allows the extraction of different resolutions, pixel fidelities, regions of
interest, components, and more, all from a single compressed bitstream. This
allows an application to manipulate or transmit only the essential information
for any target device from any JPEG 2000 compressed source image.
Friday, 24 May 2013
MATLAB code of Image Negation and Image Enhancement using Histogram Equilization.
Image Negation:
The negative point transformation
function also known as contrast
reverse. The negative transformation is used to make the output more
suitable for the task at hand (e.g., by making it easier to notice interesting
details in the image).
Where‘s’
is Output image after transformation
L1
is Maximum Pixel value
r
is Input Image.
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