Wednesday, 18 December 2013

How to apply DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) to Image?


Discrete time wavelet transforms (DWT), which produces multi-scale image decomposition. By employing filtering and sub-sampling, a result in the form of the decomposition image (for classical dyadic approach) is produced, very effectively revealing data redundancy in several scales. A coding principle is then applied in order to compress the data. It superior to Fourier and DCT. It has Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) provides a multi resolution image representation and has become one of the most important tools in image analysis and coding over the last two decades.

Monday, 16 December 2013

MATLAB Implementation of Steganography (Simple Data Hiding Method).


AIM: Study & Implementation of Steganography (Simple Data Hiding Method).
THEORY:
Modern information hiding technology is an important branch of information security. The redundancy of digital media, as well as the characteristic of human visual system, makes it possible to hide messages. Information hiding technology used in covert communication is named as steganography. Steganography is the art and science of invisible communication. Three competing aspects, including capacity, security, and robustness, are usually considered in the designing of information hiding schemes.

How to write own function in Simulink?

Simulink is an environment for simulation and model-based design for dynamic and embedded systems. It provides an interactive graphical environment and a customizable set of block libraries that let you design, simulate, implement, and test a variety of time-varying systems, including communications, controls, signal processing, video processing, and image processing. 

Simulink offers: 

Friday, 13 December 2013

MATLAB Implementation of Face recognition with Principal Components Analysis (PCA).

Face recognition has been very important issue in computer vision and pattern recognition over the last several decades. One difficulty in face recognition is how to handle the variations in the expression, pose and illumination when only a limited number of training samples are available. In this assignment Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is proposed for facial expression detection. 

Friday, 6 December 2013

How to convert .m file to .p file?


.p file stands for protected file. Matlab provides us one facility i.e. conversion from .m to .p file. We can convert important functions from .m to protected files. Matlab has a standard encryption key using that key Matlab will convert .m to .p file. If we open that file with the help of notepad or WordPad then we can’t get anything from that file.

Thursday, 5 December 2013

How to call one GUI into other GUI in MATLAB?


Calling of one GUI into other is very important job when we design some critical software based applications. 
1. Create one main GUI window. It should contain two push buttons one for continuous signal and other for Discrete signal as shown in following figure.



How to convert .m file to .exe?


1. First write your own program. For example write any application using Graphical user Interface (GUI).
2. Now go to command prompt window and write this command mbuild -setup. After writing press enter. Then you will see the figure given below.

Tuesday, 3 December 2013

How to handle variable from one function to other function in MATLAB GUI?


Handling variable from one function to other function is also an important job. Instead of taking variables once again from user, anyone can use saved variables by handling them properly in function to function. This process will reduce code length in MATLAB.  

How to use List box in MATLAB GUI?


AIM: Study and Implementation of Toggle button, Radio button and Checkbox in MATLAB GUI. 
PROCEDURE:
1. For opening GUI tool simply type following command in command window.
>> guide
This command will open GUI toolbox.

Monday, 2 December 2013

How to use Toggle button, Radio button and Checkbox in MATLAB GUI?


AIM: Study and Implementation of Toggle button, Radio button and Checkbox in MATLAB GUI.
PROCEDURE:
1. For opening GUI tool simply type following command in command window.
>> guide
This command will open GUI toolbox.

How to apply DCT to Color Image & Grayscale Image in MATLAB?

AIM: Study and Implementation of Discrete Cosine Transform of given image.

THEORY:
Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) has been an important achievement in the field of image compression. The DCT can be considered as a discrete time version of the Fourier Cosine series. The discrete cosine transforms (DCT) is a technique for converting a signal into elementary frequency components. The transformed array obtained through DCT is also of the size N x N, same as that of the original image block.

Friday, 29 November 2013

How to use Popup menu & Axes in MATLAB GUI?



AIM: Study and Implementation of Popup menu and Axes in MATLAB GUI.
PROCEDURE:
1. For opening GUI tool simply type following command in command window.
>> guide
This command will open GUI toolbox.

How to use Slider in MATLAB GUI?


AIM: Study and Implementation of Slider in MATLAB GUI.

PROCEDURE:
1. For opening GUI tool simply type following command in command window.
>> guide
This command will open GUI toolbox.

Wednesday, 27 November 2013

How to Implement Bitplane slicing in MATLAB?


AIM:  Study and Implementation of Bitplane Slicing in MATLAB.

THEORY:
Separating a digital image into its bit-planes is useful for analyzing the relative importance played by each bit of image, a process aids in determining the adequacy of the no. of bits used to quantize each pixel. This type of decomposition is useful for image compression. This term of bit-plane extraction for an 8 bit image, it is not difficult to show that the (binary) image for bit-plane 7 can be obtained by processing input image with a thresholding gray-level transformation function.

How to use Edit box in MATLAB GUI?



AIM: 1) Study and Implementation of Edit box in MATLAB GUI.
            2) Implementation of Addition of Two numbers using two edit boxes.

PROCEDURE:
1. For opening GUI tool simply type following command in command window.
>> guide
This command will open GUI toolbox.

Monday, 25 November 2013

How to use Pushbutton in MATLAB GUI?

AIM: Study and Implementation of Pushbutton in MATLAB GUI.
PROCEDURE:
1. For opening GUI tool simply type following command in command window.
>> guide
 This command will open GUI toolbox.

Thursday, 21 November 2013

Study of Read and write different types of images in MATLAB (Binary image, Grayscale image and Color image).



AIM: Read and write different types of images (Binary image, Grayscale image and Color image)

THEORY:

Basically image having three types
1) Binary image: Binary image is the image which having 1 bit/pixel. It has 1 bitplane. Minimum pixel value of image is 0 and maximum is 1.

Wednesday, 20 November 2013

Basic Study of Graphical User Interface in MATLAB.



AIM: Study of Graphical User Interface in MATLAB.

THEORY:
Graphical user interface plays important role in today’s computer era. For user friendly operations we use graphical user interface. VB, .net these are some languages that we used for creating GUI. MATLAB provides us simple and user friendly graphical user interface tool named as ‘guide’.

How to handle Video in MATLAB?


AIM: 1. Study of Video file handling.
            2. Implementing Color to Black and white video conversion.

THEORY:
1. Study of Video file handling:
Video file reading in Matlab is interesting process. So aim of this experiments is
1. How to read video file in Matlab?
2. How to play video files in Matlab?
3. How to check size of the video file in Matlab?

How to handles Text file, Excel file and Audio file in MATLAB?



AIM: Study and Implementation of file handling
            1. Text files handling
            2. Excel files handling
3. Audio file handling

THEORY:
1. Text files Handling:
Generally we use text files and for doing various documents. We can directly read text files in Matlab.

Monday, 18 November 2013

How to create user defined function in MATLAB?

AIM: Study and Implementation of user defined function.

THEORY:
MATLAB function is a special type of M-file that runs in its own independent workspace. It receives input data through an input argument list, and returns results to the caller through an output argument list.


Study and Implementation of Branching Statements (if – else and Switch). Implementation of Finding Quadratic equation, Finding Even odd, Finding Greatest Number....

AIM: Study and Implementation of Branching Statements (if – else and Switch). 
THEORY:
Decision making structures require that the programmer specify one or more conditions to be evaluated or tested by the program, along with a statement or statements to be executed if the condition is determined to be true, and optionally, other statements to be executed if the condition is determined to be false.

Saturday, 16 November 2013

Study and Implementation of Looping Statements (for loop and while loop), Implementation of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio and Factorial of Number.....


AIM: Study and Implementation of Looping Statements (for loop and while loop). 

THEORY:
Loops are MATLAB constructs that permit us to execute a sequence of statements more than once. There are two basic forms of loop constructs: while loops and for loops. The major difference between these two types of loops is in how the repetition is controlled. The code in a while loop is repeated an indefinite number of times until some user-specified condition is satisfied. By contrast, the code in a “for loop” is repeated a specified number of times, and the number of repetitions is known before the loops starts.

Study and Implementation of Discrete Time Signal and Continuous Time Signal using Stem and Plot Command Respectively.

AIM: Study and Implementation of Plot and Stem Command. 
THEORY:
1. For ‘STEM’ Command:
A discrete time signal has a value defined only at discrete points in time in these signals the independent variables takes only a discrete set of integer values.
e.g. Attendance of students Vs date (time)
Representation of DT sequence:

Study and Implementation of Matrix Manipulation and Array Handling.

AIM: Study and Implementation of Matrix Manipulation and Array Handling. 
THEORY:
The fundamental unit of data in any MATLAB program is the array. An array is a collection of data values organized into rows and columns and known by a single name. Individual data values within an array are accessed by including the name of the array followed by subscripts in parentheses that identify the row and column of the particular value. Even scalars are treated as arrays by MATLAB—they are simply arrays with only one row and one column. Arrays can be classified as either vectors or matrices.

Wednesday, 28 August 2013

Tone Generation using LPC2148....


AIM: Tone generation with Different delay.
THEORY:
Tone generation using digital I/O is simply creating a square wave of appropriate frequency. For this we can use the previous program of LED flashing as the base program. When we flash an LED, we use large delay for LED flashing to be visible. However, the tone frequencies are typically large. So the only modification required is to create separate delay routines with various delay values, typically in the range of 100uSec to 50mSec.

Thursday, 22 August 2013

Basic Image File Formats


Image processing is a broad area. Image is nothing but a combination of pixels. It has various file formats.
      1)     BMP (Bitmap file format)
      2)     JPG (Joint Photographic Expert Group)
      3)     TIF (Tagged Image file format)
      4)     PNG (Portable Network Graphics)
      5)     PPM, PGM, PBM, PNM and PFM
      6)      RAW (Raw Image format)
      7)     GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)

Wednesday, 14 August 2013

Successively off LED and Using AND/OR operation flashing of LED in LPC2148


AIM: 1) Set LED P0.0 to P0.7 first and then successively off it.
            2) Flash LED at P0.1, P0.2, P0.20 and P0.21 using AND/OR operation.

THEORY:
The LED flashing / chasing can be implemented using software delay and port pin handling.
PINSEL, IODIR, IOSET and IOCLR these four registers are very important registers when we consider port I/O operation.

Thursday, 8 August 2013

Chasing LED i.e. (Flash one LED right to left and left to right at P0.0 to P0.7).



AIM: Chasing LED i.e. (Flash one LED right to left and left to right at P0.0 to P0.7).

THEORY:
The LED flashing / chasing can be implemented using software delay and port pin handling.
PINSEL, IODIR, IOSET and IOCLR these four registers are very important registers when we consider port I/O operation.

Saturday, 20 July 2013

Basic Study of MATLAB



AIM: Basic Study of Matlab.
THEORY:
MATLAB is software proposed for high performance numerical computation & visualization. It provides an introductive environment with hundreds of built in function for technical computation graphics & animation. It provided extensibility with its own high level performance programming language. Here MATLAB stands for ‘Matrix’ laboratory.

Thursday, 27 June 2013

Study of PLL (Phase Locked Loop) Generate square wave at P0.4 with PLL (Fosc=12 MHz and Cclk = 48 MHz) using ARM LPC2148....


AIM: Generate square wave at P0.4 with PLL (Fosc=12 MHz and Cclk = 48 MHz).

THEORY:
PLL is a block that allows multiplying the input frequency. The multiplication factor can be an integer or a rational number. There are two PLL modules in the LPC2141/2/4/6/8 microcontroller. The PLL0 is used to generate the CCLK clock (system clock) while the PLL1 has to supply the clock for the USB at the fixed rate of 48 MHz Structurally these two PLLs are identical with exception of the PLL interrupt capabilities reserved only for the PLL0. The PLL0 and PLL1 accept an input clock frequency in the range of 10 MHz to 25 MHz only.

Saturday, 22 June 2013

Key sensing and activating LED, Relay and Buzzer in ARM LPC2148



AIM: Sense key and activate following devices.

Sense key from P0.0
Activate LED and Relay connected at P0.3 and P0.6 resp.
Sense key from P0.1
Activate LED and Relay connected at P0.4 and P0.7 resp.
Sense key from P0.2
Activate Buzzer connected at P0.5.

Tuesday, 18 June 2013

Copy the content of memory location from one place to other (Block copy) in ARM LPC2148


AIM: Copy the content of memory location from one place to other.

THEORY:
This operation is carried out by copying content of 5 memory location. Source memory address is 0x01 and destination memory address is 0x21 by using LDR and STR instructions.

Tuesday, 11 June 2013

Implementing flashing of LED at port 0 using ARM LPC2148.



AIM: Flashing LED at P0.0, P0.1, P0.2 and P0.3 with 1 sec delay.
          
THEORY:
The LED flashing can be implemented using software delay and port pin handling.
PINSEL, IODIR, IOSET and IOCLR these four registers are very important registers when we consider port I/O operation. 

Addition of two 32 bit numbers with subroutine & function in assembly and embedded c language respectively (LPC2148).



AIM: Addition of two 32 bit numbers, with subroutine in assembly language and with function     in embedded c language.

THEORY:
Basically Arithmetic logical unit (ALU) is main important part of the processor. ALU used for performing various arithmetic as well as logical operations. If result of ALU is zero then Z flag of CPSR register will set. If carry is generated from 31th bit of the result then carry flag will set. If 31th bit of the result is 1 then negative flag will set.The arithmetic instructions implement addition and subtraction of 32-bit signed andunsigned values.

Monday, 3 June 2013

MATLAB code of RGB color Extraction from Color Image


RGB (Red, Green, Blue) Color model:
Basically image divided into three types. Binary image require 1 bit/pixel and it has 1 plane. Gray scale image require 8 bit/pixel and it has 8 bitplanes. Color image having 3 planes, red green and blue, each plane require 8 bits/pixel, it has 24 bitplanes.
The RGB color model is based on a Cartesian coordinate system whose axes represent the three primary colors of light (R, G, and B), usually normalized to the range [0, 1]. The eight vertices of the resulting cube correspond to the three primary colors of light, the three secondary colors, pure white and pure black.

Monday, 27 May 2013

Matlab code for JPEG2000 Image Compression Standard.



As digital imagery becomes more commonplace and of higher quality, there is a need to manipulate more and more data. Thus, image compression must not only reduce the necessary storage and bandwidth requirements, but also allow extraction for editing, processing, and targeting particular devices and applications. The JPEG-2000 image compression system has a rate-distortion advantage over the original JPEG. More importantly, it also allows the extraction of different resolutions, pixel fidelities, regions of interest, components, and more, all from a single compressed bit-stream. This allows an application to manipulate or transmit only the essential information for any target device from any JPEG 2000 compressed source image.

Friday, 24 May 2013

MATLAB code of Image Negation and Image Enhancement using Histogram Equilization.

Image Negation:

The negative point transformation function also known as contrast reverse. The negative transformation is used to make the output more suitable for the task at hand (e.g., by making it easier to notice interesting details in the image).

Where‘s’ is Output image after transformation
L-1 is Maximum Pixel value
r is Input Image.