**AIM:**

**Study and Implementation of Branching Statements (if – else and Switch).**

**THEORY:**

Decision
making structures require that the programmer specify one or more conditions to
be evaluated or tested by the program, along with a statement or statements to
be executed if the condition is determined to be true, and optionally, other
statements to be executed if the condition is determined to be false.

**1. If Statement:**

**Syntax:**

If (condition)

Statement;

Statement;

end

**2. if – else Statement:**

An
if statement can be followed by
an optional else statement,
which executes when the boolean expression is false.

**Syntax:**

If (condition)

Statement;

Statement;

Else

Statement;

Statement;

end

**3. Switch case:**

A switch statement allows a variable to be tested for equality
against a list of values. Each value is called a case, and the variable being
switched on is checked for each case.

**Syntax:**

Switch
(Control Expression)

**Case 1**

Statement;

Case 2

Statement;

….

….

….

Case n

Statement;

Otherwise

Statement;

end

**PROCEDURE:**

**1. Program for Even and Odd number:**

Using ‘mod’ command find mod (number, 2). If output value
is 1 then given number is odd number otherwise number is even number. Use if –
else statement.

**2. Program for Greatest number among three numbers:**

**This can be achieved using relational and logical operators.**

If (num1>num2 &&
num1>num3) then num1 is greatest number otherwise check for second number.

**3. Program for finding roots of Quadratic equation:**

**If (b^2-4ac) < 0 then it has two complex roots. If (b^2-4ac) = 0 then it has two equal real roots and if (b^2-4ac) > 0 then it has two distinct roots. Using if – else implement all these equations.**

**4. Program using Switch case:**

**If case 1 is true then do addition, if case 2 is true then do subtraction, if case 3 is true then do multiplication and if case 4 is true then do division of two numbers.**

**1. Program for Even and Odd:**

**Program:**

%Program for Even odd Number

a=input('Enter Number
for Even or Odd = ');

if(mod(a,2)==0)

disp('Number is Even')

else

disp('Number is Odd')

end

**Output:**

Enter Number for Even or Odd = 5

Number is Odd

Enter Number for Even or Odd = 6

Number is Even

**2. Program for greatest number:**

**Program:**

% Program for finding Greatest number between three numbers

a=input('Enter 1st
Number = ');

b=input('Enter 2nd
Number = ');

c=input('Enter 3rd
Number = ');

if(a>b && a>c)

disp('Greatest Number is =');a

elseif(b>a
&& b>c)

disp('Greatest Number is =');b

else

disp('Greatest Number is =');c

end

**Output:**

Enter
1st Number = 3

Enter
2nd Number = 10

Enter
3rd Number = 4

Greatest
Number is =

b
=10

**3. Program for Quadratic Equation**

**Program:**

% Prompt the user for the coefficients of the equation

disp
('This program solves for the roots of a quadratic ');

disp
('equation of the form A*X^2 + B*X + C = 0. ');

a
= input ('Enter the coefficient A: ');

b
= input ('Enter the coefficient B: ');

c
= input ('Enter the coefficient C: ');

%
Calculate discriminant

discriminant
= b^2 - 4 * a * c;

% Solve for the roots, depending on the value of the
discriminant

if
discriminant > 0 % there are two real roots,
so...

x1
= ( -b + sqrt(discriminant) )/( 2 * a );

x2
= ( -b - sqrt(discriminant) )/( 2 * a );

disp
('This equation has two real roots:');

fprintf
('x1 = %f\n', x1);

fprintf
('x2 = %f\n', x2);

elseif
discriminant == 0 % there is one repeated root,
so...

x1
= ( -b )/( 2 * a );

disp
('This equation has two identical real roots:');

fprintf
('x1 = x2 = %f\n', x1);

else
% there are complex roots, so ...

real_part
= ( -b )/( 2 * a );

imag_part
= sqrt ( abs ( discriminant ) )/( 2 * a );

disp
('This equation has complex roots:');

fprintf('x1
= %f +i %f\n', real_part, imag_part );

fprintf('x1
= %f -i %f\n', real_part, imag_part );

end

**Output:**

This
program solves for the roots of a quadratic

equation
of the form A*X^2 + B*X + C = 0.

Enter
the coefficient A: 1

Enter
the coefficient B: 5

Enter
the coefficient C: 6

This
equation has two real roots:

x1
= -2.000000

x2
= -3.000000

**4. Program for Switch case:**

**Program:**

% Switch Case

a=input('Enter 1st
number = ');

b=input('Enter 2nd
number = ');

choice=input('Enter Choice
= ');

switch(choice)

case 1

c=a+b;

disp('Addition is');c

case 2

c=a-b;

disp('Subsrtaction is');c

case 3

c=a*b;

disp('Multiplication is');c

case 4

c=a/b;

disp('Division is');c

case 5

c=(a+b)/2;

disp('Average is');c

otherwise

disp('Option is Invalid')

end

**Output:**

Enter
1st number = 3

Enter
2nd number = 6

Enter
Choice = 4

Division
is

c
= 0.5000

Enter
1st number = 4

Enter
2nd number = 8

Enter
Choice = 9

Option
is Invalid

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